Africa

In terms of laws for the protection of HRDs, the pioneer country in Africa has been the Democratic Republic of Congo, which started in 2007 to debate laws in provinces and at the national level. But it has been especially since 2015 that laws have been passed in several countries, mostly, but not exclusively, in West Africa. It is the region with the most national processes on laws, fifteen in total, but also with the most stalled or abandoned processes (seven of the fifteen).

In general, these national laws have been based on the UN Declaration on HRDs, as well as on the Model Law developed by the International Service for Human Rights.

Collectively, these laws succinctly outline a number of rights for human rights defenders, which overlap to a large extent with the rights that everyone has as a citizen of these countries. Some laws regulate their application, others do not. And several laws contain a series of “responsibilities” on the part of HRDs, as for example in the 2014 law of Côte d’Ivoire:

o Art. 10 : ” HRDs are obliged to exercise their rights and freedoms impartially and with respect for the rights of others, public safety and the general interest “.
o Art. 12: “… Human rights defenders must contribute to the preservation and strengthening of social and national solidarity…. “
These responsibilities assigned to HRDs could serve as a basis for delegitimising the action of HRDs.

As of mid-2021, the list of countries with protection policies in Africa is as follows:
•Law in force: Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali,
•Decree or sub-national regulation: Democratic Republic of Congo
•Discussions in force: Uganda, Madagascar, Niger, Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Togo.
•Previous debates, not currently taken up: Cameroon, Guinea, Kenya, Sierra Leone, South Sudan.

ISHR
2021
The study on the potential of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) to serve as protection mechanisms for human rights defenders...
Ministère de la Justice et des Droits de l'Homme
2021
On 10 November 2021, the government of Ivory Coast adopted the inter-ministerial order N°972/MJDH/MEMD/MIS, creating the Committee for the Protection...
ISHR
2021
Jointly with the national defenders’ coalitions in Mali, Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone and Niger, ISHR has published a...
ISHR
2021
From 18th to 20th October 2021, the International Service for Human Rights (ISHR) hosted a regional consultation in Abidjan on...
International Service for Human Rights
2021
According to Articles 23 (3) and 72 of the Rules of Procedure of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’...
2021
Togo is in the process of adopting the law on the protection of human rights defenders (HRDs). This law, enshrined...
2021
Togo has for several years been engaged in a fierce struggle for the protection of human rights and thus “guarantee...
2021
A meeting between the consultant and stakeholders on the draft law on the recognition and protection of human rights defenders...
Defenders Protection Initiative
2020
In 2020, a protection bill for defenders has been proposed in the Ugandan Parliament. It provides for the recognition and...
2018
ISHR In a welcome move, the UN Human Rights Committee has asked Guinea to adopt the draft bill for the promotion and...